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A country of less than 600,000 people and covering just 1000 sq miles (2600 sq kilometers).

The home of European Union Parliament and the European Court of Justice. 

This small nation has an incredible history over the last 1000 years and beyond. 

From the times of the Celts and Gauls and the the founding of the first castle at  Luxembourg (Lucilinburhuc meaning little castle) by Count Siegfried in 963 A.D.

In about 1200, the walls went up; and, despite a history that included ruling by Spain, France, Germany, and Belgium at times, Luxembourg has been independent for about 200 years now.  

Today, Luxembourg City is a beautiful place to visit. a compact city with so much to see in such a small walking distance. 

Plus, in some ways, this place is remarkably affordable. The metro system is totally free.  Seeing many of the attractions you want cost nothing, including entrance the to History and Art Museum.  And, I found food prices to be more affordable than I thought they would be.  

Chemin de la Corniche.jpg

Heights and Valleys

a formidable defense of the heights of Luxembourg City above the river valley

Beautiful Churches

From the 16th century to the 19th.

Notre Dame Cathedral 2.jpg

Old Quarter

The Old City of Luxembourg is located at the confluence of the Alzette and Pétrusse Rivers, on a very steep rocky outcrop which is somewhat of a natural fortification that only needed to be completed on the west side.

These heights are where much of the most beautiful parts of the city are located.  

Meander around the streets, do a little shopping, stop at a cafe, or just rest in one of the numerous plazas.  

Luxembourg City
Rue de Nord Luxembourg
Luxembourg City
Rue de la Marche-aux-herbes Luxembourg

Palais Grand Ducal

Palace serving as residence of Grand Duke of Luxembourg.  They offer guided tours in the summer between July and September. 

The building started a as town hall in 1572 and served that function for over 200 years before becoming a national government building in 1795, then the seat of the Luxembourg government for 2 decades. In 1817, it became the home of the governor, then the Duke, and still serves that role today.  

Palais Grand Ducal Luxembourg
Palais Grand Ducal  Luxembourg


The Cathedral of Notre Dame is the most popular church.  The most recent version that you see today was built in  1885 and expanded between 1935 and 1963.  But, there have been churches here since the 17th century.

There is also Saint Michael Church, the oldest church in Luxembourg City. The current church dates back to 1687, thought the site has served religious buildings for a millennium.   

Notre Dame Cathedral Luxembourg
Notre Dame Cathedral Luxembourg
Notre Dame Cathedral interior Luxembourg
St Michael Church Luxembourg
Notre Dame Cathedral interior Luxembourg
St Michael Church interior Luxembourg

Bock Wall and Casements

Vast complex of underground tunnels & galleries, begun in 1644 and used as recently as WWII for bomb shelters.  An impressive system of defenses that makes you wonder what the city must have looked like before the walls were dismantled following the Treaty of London in 1867. Unfortunately, the casements were closed for the season when I visited in March.

Chemin de la Corniche Luxembourg
Rocher du Bock Luxembourg
Tower of Jacob Luxembourg
Fort Obergrunewald Luxembourg


Sitting about 50 meters below the defensive walls, the small neighborhood at the bottom of the valley between the heights of Luxembourg City, on the banks of the Alzette River. It is only populated by about 1000 people, and has an area of 75 acres (30 hectares).  But, it is quite scenic to walk down and back up. and very peaceful along the river. 

Grund Luxembourg City
Alzette River Luxembourg City
Church of Saint John in Grund Luxembourg
Stierchen Bridge Luxembourg

Place Guillaume II

13th century public square named after King William II, hosting outdoor markets and events that was unfortunately full closed for renovations during my visit. Around the plaza, you will find the City Hall (Hôtel de Ville) and the tourism office, along with restaurants and a supermarket. 

Place d'Armes

Not as grand as Place Guillame, but also used for outdoor events and surrounded by restaurants and wonderful archirtecture. 

National Art and History Museum (Nationalmusée um Fëschmaart)

Free access to the permanent collection of modern and contemporary art, and only 7 euro for the temporary exhibitions.  Located across the street from the St. Michael Church. 

Getting to and around Luxembourg

Even though Luxembourg is situated directly between Germany, France and Belgium; train routes directly to Luxembourg are not as readily available as one would expect.  But, you can get a train from Paris Gare de l'Est that stops in Metz and takes just over 2 hours. Frankfurt is just a 3 hour drive, but taking multiple bus and train connections takes 4.5-5.5 hours or you can get connecting trains from Brussels that take 3.5 to 4 hours.  When I visited, I was in Copenhagen beforehand, so I flew in.  Connecting trains were available and would have taken about 14 hours from Denmark, but the cost of flying for me was comparable, and faster. 

However, once you have arrived in Luxembourg City, public transportation is extensive and free! Including the routes from the airport which take about 30 minutes to the center.

If you want to visit the smaller towns around Luxembourg, there are plenty of trains and busses to get you around. And, remember, Luxembourg isn't that large! The second largest city (Esch-sur-Alzette) is less than 30,000 people. 

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